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Air-source heat pumps, what are they? And how do I know if one is right for me?

Here at CUB, we work to provide consumers with reliable information on the latest energy-saving technology, so you can make informed decisions related to your energy use. This blog post will inform you on the basics of heat pump technology, direct you to reliable resources to learn more, and highlight some deep rebates available now for the installation of heat pumps.

 

What is a heat pump?

A heat pump is a way to heat and cool your home. What makes a heat pump different from other kinds of heating and cooling, like central air conditioning or forced air heating, is that they provide both heating and cooling. Heat pumps work just refrigerators. The pumps use coils to move heat between different sources. The Department of Energy states that, “because [heat pumps] move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide equivalent space conditioning at as little as one quarter of the cost of operating conventional heating or cooling appliances.” This means heat pumps can be a cost-effective way to control the temperature of your home.

There are various types of heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. We focus mainly on air-source heat pumps, because they are normally the most feasible option for homes and small buildings. Air-source heat pumps are powered by electricity, and they’re available for homes that have ducts for central air and heating, or in ductless versions. Geothermal (or ground-source) heat pumps can also be an option, more often for larger buildings, and heat pumps can even be driven by a heat source like natural gas. The US Department of Energy Heat Pump Systems guide provides a wealth of information about the various options.

Heat pump technology isn’t new. Air-source heat pumps have been used in milder climates for years. However, due to advancements in the technology, heat pumps have recently become a viable option for cold-weather climates like Minnesota. The Minnesota Center for Energy and Environment recently conducted a   and found that they can provide heating even down to negative thirteen degrees.

The up-front cost of buying and installing a heat-pump is higher than a traditional HVAC unit, but it can pay for itself in energy savings in many homes.

Here are some questions and considerations to keep in mind while considering a heat pump.

  • Since you live in Minnesota, you will need an alternative heat source. No heat pump available today can keep your house warm when it’s 40 below. Heat pumps can be integrated with another heating system, such as a natural gas or propane furnace, so that the backup will automatically come on when it’s needed. If you’re considering a heat pump, you can talk with an HVAC installer to make sure that it can integrate with your existing heating system.
  • Like any heating or cooling system, the efficiency and ability of your heat pump to control the temperature will vary based on factors, like the build of your home. The more insulated and the more energy efficient your home is, the more effective your heat pump will be.
  • Your potential savings will also change depending on what your alternative heat source is and the price of electricity. For example, heat pumps have been shown to be cost effective for homes that heat with electric resistance heat. The Minnesota Energy Efficiency Potential study found that “an efficient ASHP serving heating loads for an entire single-family home can save over 9,000 kWh, or roughly $1,000, per year in heating costs versus heating with electric heat.” According to the Cold Climate Air Source Heat Pump report, homes that heated with propane in propane use when using an air-source heat pump. Natural gas is relatively inexpensive today, so if you heat your home with gas, it may not be cost effective to install a heat pump.

 

Interested in purchasing a heat pump? Deep rebates being offered by Great River Energy right now.

Great River Energy and its member utilities, over 28 cooperative providers across the state, are currently offering a deep rebate (up to $2,000) to help cover the up-front cost of heat pumps. To see if your utility provider is participating in the rebate program check GRE’s list of members here. If you choose to take advantage of the rebate, make sure that your contractor and the model heat pump provider are eligible for your utility provider’s rebate. A “Quality Installer Program” certification is required for the rebate. Visit Great River Energy’s Energy Wise Minnesota web page or call the office of your utility provider for more details.

 

More resources:

 

If you ever have any questions about electric heat, electricity rates, or any other concerns relating to your ability to access reliable, affordable energy to heat your home, please contact us here CUB at info@cubminnesota.org or call us at 651-300-4701.

Author: Ana Diaz

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